Abstracts & Papers in Stream 1

The purpose of this study is to determine the manner in which battered wives' purpose in life influences resilience, based on the stress coping model. This purpose is meaningful in that it may help present battered wives with a new perspective of a changeable life, away from the negative perspectives so often associated with domestic violence victims. Furthermore, this study is targeted specifically toward improving individual quality of life, as well as the within-family drive to pursue self-fulfillment with resilience. The specific research question is that the higher the objective of life (meaning/value), the more they influence upon resilience (self-confidence/communication efficiency/optimistic orientation) of the abused wives.
This study surveyed 16 shelters with similar environmental conditions among the 20 shelters located in the Seoul and Kyunggi areas. 130 questionnaires were distributed since August 2009 and 120 (92.3%) were collected until the end of September, 2009. Among 120 collected questionnaires, 10 contained insufficient information for analysis. Therefore, our analyses were based on 110 questionnaires, using the SPSS 15.0 program for statistical analysis.
The results of this study can be summarized as follows. First, the meaning and value of life influence upon self-confidence among the purpose of life (meaning/value). Second, the results of our analysis on the effects on communication efficiency demonstrated that value, among the constituent factors in purpose of life, affects communication efficiency, and that these two factors are negatively related. Thus, personal values are negatively related with communication efficiency. Third, the results of our analysis of optimism showed that only the "value of life" variable had any effect on optimism. This underscores the importance of personal internal aspects. Based on these results, it is suggested that a kind of program for enhancing self-confidence in order to develop the purpose of life, communication efficiency, and optimistic orientation.

Despite potential harmful effect of discrimination on health, empirical data with directly measure discrimination are scarce. This study aims to examine associations of perceived discrimination in one's lifetime with physical, mental, and self rated ill-health among South Korean elderly. Data were from gender-, age-, and area-stratified sample of 994 elderly aged 60-89, surveyed with face to face interviews across the country. Discrimination was measured with a brief self-report instrument, "Experience of Discrimination (EOD)", developed and validated by Krieger. We further considered various types of discrimination regarding age, education, region, and birth-order as well as gender discrimination. Health outcomes included depression, self-reported poor health, and physician-diagnosed chronic diseases. To assess the independent effect of discrimination on health, prevalence ratios and associated 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by multivariate log binomial regression, controlling for age, life-course socioeconomic positions(high vs. low by the MacArthur scale measure for early childhood, adult, and old ages) and health behaviors(cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, physical exercise). A total of 23.4% reported experiences in any types of discrimination. While 23% of women reported experiencing gender discrimination, only 0.9% of men did so. When adjusted with age, men with any types of discrimination experiences were 1.88 times more likely to report depression (95% CI 1.08-3.32) and 1.61 times to report self-reported poor health (95% CI 1.06-2.44). Discrimination effect on mental health seemed to be even larger among women. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathways using various outcomes for the enhancement of the Korean elderly.


Authors(*presenter): Heeran Chun*, Minah Kang
Affiliation: Department of Public Administration, College of Social Sciences, Ewha Womans University

China has undergone a dramatic economic and social transformation over the past three decades. Moreover, it started to implement the one-child national policy in 1978 and resulted in dramatic changes in family and demographic structures. All these changes challenge and bring new meaning to the Confucian teaching on how one should develop oneself, relate to family members, and contribute to society.  Thus, it can be inferred the social capital defined along the cognitive and structural dimensions has also changed.

This paper is aimed to (1) construct a scale for measuring the social capital among primary school children, their parents, and teachers in China, and (2) apply the scale to Shenzhen, Guangdong province, China. Literature review on social value transformation in China and on social capital in general will be conducted to construct the scale. A survey instrument will be developed and administered with a sample of 600 primary school children (5th of 6th grade) and their parents and teachers in Shenzhen. Stratified random sampling method will be adopted to draw a representative sample in Shenzhen.

The findings will reveal information on who the children see as their role models, whether the preferences of their parents will have influence on their children, the trust and risk attitudes of the children, and their social preferences for success and status. Furthermore, conclusions will be drawn on the stock of social capital among primary school children, their parents, and teachers after the comprehensive assessment. The findings from Shenzhen may inform the rest of the country on social values held by the child as well as on the transmission of preferences within a household. In the future, extending the scope of the study to multiple localities in China will make it possible to decompose the effects of different stages of economic development and different cultures.

Dr Maggie LAU
Department of Social Sciences
The Hong Kong Institute of Education

Email: maggielau@ied.edu.hk