Abstracts & Papers in Session 6

The purpose of this study is to determine the manner in which battered wives' purpose in life influences resilience, based on the stress coping model. This purpose is meaningful in that it may help present battered wives with a new perspective of a changeable life, away from the negative perspectives so often associated with domestic violence victims. Furthermore, this study is targeted specifically toward improving individual quality of life, as well as the within-family drive to pursue self-fulfillment with resilience. The specific research question is that the higher the objective of life (meaning/value), the more they influence upon resilience (self-confidence/communication efficiency/optimistic orientation) of the abused wives.
This study surveyed 16 shelters with similar environmental conditions among the 20 shelters located in the Seoul and Kyunggi areas. 130 questionnaires were distributed since August 2009 and 120 (92.3%) were collected until the end of September, 2009. Among 120 collected questionnaires, 10 contained insufficient information for analysis. Therefore, our analyses were based on 110 questionnaires, using the SPSS 15.0 program for statistical analysis.
The results of this study can be summarized as follows. First, the meaning and value of life influence upon self-confidence among the purpose of life (meaning/value). Second, the results of our analysis on the effects on communication efficiency demonstrated that value, among the constituent factors in purpose of life, affects communication efficiency, and that these two factors are negatively related. Thus, personal values are negatively related with communication efficiency. Third, the results of our analysis of optimism showed that only the "value of life" variable had any effect on optimism. This underscores the importance of personal internal aspects. Based on these results, it is suggested that a kind of program for enhancing self-confidence in order to develop the purpose of life, communication efficiency, and optimistic orientation.
This study examined the effect of budgetary participation on managerial performance via the mediating variable of organizational commitment in Malaysian local government authorities (LGAs). To test this association, the data is obtained through survey from the 110 middle managers in accounting and finance department in Malaysian LGAs namely as Alor Setar City Council, Johor Baharu City Council, Melacca Historical City Council, Ipoh City Hall, Shah Alam City Council, Petaling Jaya City Council, Kuala Terengganu City Council and Kuala Lumpur City Hall. In the analysis of data, descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, factor analysis, multiple regression analysis and t-test analysis were used. The results of survey are consistent with the proposition that the greater the budget participation by LGA public servants, the higher is their organizational commitment which, in turn, leads to higher managerial performance. However, several limitations can be noted in this study. Firstly, this study survey only conducted in the LGAs, thus result may not be generalized to other public organizations. Secondly, it only involves one intervening variable; organizational commitment to explain the budgetary participation, perceived usefulness of MAS, performance measures and managerial performance relationship. Thirdly, the use of respondents' perception to measure the variables has been criticized on the grounds that they are not objective. Finally, a significant for this study is that its finding can have practical relevance in the current management setting in LGAs in Malaysia. It also attempt to provide insights budgetary participation and organization commitment as a practical matter by public managers in LGAs in the use of evaluating and providing incentive for their performance. The findings from this study also can be used in response to such problems in LGAs and its relevance to the Ninth Malaysia Plan 2006-2010 which highlighted the urgency of improving the quality of public service performance as it is a fundamental prerequisite toward achieving the National Mission.

"Social enterprise" refers to operations within the third sector that have as their goals activities related to social policy, especially problems related to social exclusion. Work Integration Social Enterprise (WISE) is one type of activity that aims to provide jobs or job training programs to the group of people often excluded from the labor market, including youth and people with disabilities.
WISEs are now being strongly supported by governments in the EU as a means of tackling social exclusion. Similarly in the East Asia, WISEs have recently drawing attention from policy makers and activists in same contexts. Although Japan has no systematic law on the social enterprise unlike Korea, some social enterprises are trying to create new law on WISE and expand their activities.
In this presentation after introducing the concept of WISE and the current situation of WISE in Japan, I will focus on the working conditions of workers among the WISE. In Japan there is a discussion about the effectiveness of WISE and TSO (Third sector organization) to tackle the social exclusion. The point of this discussion is whether WISEs just create precarious employments to the workers or not. However, the previous studies of third sector in Japan have not examined workers' working conditions and careers in the relation to social exclusion. 
Therefore, I will examine this point through case study. I will show the working condition, career, and the opinions on their jobs in WISE based on the interviews with employees in the WISE employing people with and without disabilities. From this survey I will try to understand the effectiveness of WISE to the social inclusion

Full paper: Akira Yonezawa_2010_Work Integration Social Enterprise in Japan.pdf

The purpose of this study; Currently, the expectation on social enterprise for confronting social exclusion by policy makers and public is growing in Japan. However the much amount of study for social enterprise, in particular, addressing on the Work Integration Social Enterprise (WISE) have been already conducted in Europe, there is not many articles researched about SE in Japan. In addition to say, there little or no study analyzing on the role of social enterprise in social inclusion about disadvantaged people such as disability people, elders, homeless people, foreigner labors, and low-skilled young workers. Because of the above, this study focus some of developed (meddle-large size) social enterprise on the aspects of the development history, financial base and the way of operation, the prospects for the organization or project to attain the social inclusion of disadvantaged people in the future, and so on. From this study finally, we intend to consider policy implications about supporting WISEs.

Methods; This study is based on semi-structured interviews including some dozen key informant of WISE (i.e. administrator, leader, board member) in Japan. The preliminary interviews were conducted in 2009 to determine the form of the interview questions. All of the interview research was completed from February to July 2010. The subject of our research include not only traditional WISE such as the women's worker cooperatives, the workers cooperatives for day labors, and workshops for disadvantaged people, but also new type of WISE targeting for homeless people, foreigner labors, and low-skilled young workers.

Full paper: Sakurai_2010_How do Social Enterprises Realize an Inclusive Society.pdf

Based on Power-resource and institutional rational choice approach, this paper seeks to explain the emergence and resilience of the developmental welfare regime in Korea, with special attention to strategic interactions of company unions, employers of chaebols, and politicians. The Korea case study will provide three tentative hypotheses emphasizing the effects of labor's organization structure, economic concentration, and electoral rules, which will help understand the minimalist welfare states in Japan and the US.


Full paper: Why is KWS small-EASP-Jae-jin Yang-Aug 15 2010.pdf

The welfare regime in most East Asian countries has long been characterized as a "residual welfare state." Yet, recent development also suggests that welfare programs in many of these countries have experienced significant expansion. Scholars have largely agreed that economic openness exerts significant impacts on welfare development in these countries. They have, however, failed to explain why economic openness produces seemingly opposite effects. This study provides a theoretical framework to explain under what conditions openness provides an expansionary dynamic and what constrains that dynamic. I argue that the transformation of welfare regimes reflects the changing development strategies within these countries under the new context of globalization. Economic integration and international market competition induce governments in these countries to adapt a balanced view of social protection, which encourages the reduction of inefficient welf are programs but simultaneously promotes governments to expand safety nets programs that are critical for market competition and continuous development. As a result, the impact of economic openness is multidimensional - it provides both constraints and opportunities for social policy adjustment. I further argue that political institutions are critical in ensuring the speed of such a transformation under the pressures of conflicting demands from various social groups that have been affected unevenly by openness.
A growing volume of literature suggests that the countries in Northeast Asia are defying the productivist logic that has underpinned their welfare production regime. This article aims to unfold the developmental trajectory of welfare states in Japan, Korea and Taiwan. By combining structural accounts and political explanations of social policy reform, it discusses continuity and changes in the role of social policy over a stretched period of time. It then argues that although there has been significant change made to social policy in the region, structural conditions and the politics of expansion associated with them are yet to amount to a shift in the core foundation of their welfare production regime. The market conforming role of social policy in East Asia has been persistent and this explains their resilience against the forces of economic liberalization.

Recently, it has become necessary to respond to 'New Social Risk' (henceforth 'NSR') which classical welfare states could not handle, as controversy on this has become a main issue in social policy. NSR is usually caused by the change in population structure, the labor markets and privatization of the social insurance. Thus, the demand has arisen to have a new version of welfare state, rather than to maintain classical welfare states (Esping-Andersen, 2002).

On the other hand, classical model welfare states under gender division which refer to 'male bread winner vs. female homemaker' cannot apply in our real life any more. One of the reasons is that the increase of working women has a great significance which converts the existing male bread winner society to a universal bread winner society. A further reason is linked closely to the demand of social caring through the decrease of childbirth by the progress of the falling birthrate and the ageing of society. As a result, the recession of the male bread winner model has caused the demand of a new role of the welfare states for work-life balance, and thereby a large range of opinion has emerged on new dimensional respond of states for 'socialization of caring'(Sona, M. & Rianne, M, 2002).

If so, what is the socialization of caring? It means the way to reallocate the responsibility about caring between state, market, and family. Traditionally the role of caring has been taken by women, but as can be seen above, various changes have become significant factors to transfer the existing hypothesis which had applied for current provision of care.

Therefore, it is very important to examine the process of socialization of caring to respond to NSR in each country after the restructuring of the welfare state. Above all, I would like to focus on the regime of the welfare state, and then to find out the reason in making different ways of socialization of caring, especially in South Korea, the UK and Sweden.

Proposed Research Aims and Questions
Therefore, my research will compare the reasons why there are different responses in making social care regimes in South Korea, the U.K, and Sweden.

In 2008, I already researched the comparison of responses in each regime produced during the restructuring process of welfare states, especially based on child care policy1. In this research, I compared the differences in responses between eight countries for socialization of caring shown during the restructuring process of welfare states with reasons in the sole field of child care policy (in Sweden, Denmark, the Netherland, Italy, France, Australia, the UK and USA).

Since then, I've realized that to focus on gender politics to find out the reasons of difference in improving care policy is required, which is one of the most representative policies in order to socialize caring labor, because it is the most momentous matter closely linked with women's participation of the labor market. Also, for restructuring of welfare states, discussion on the care policy can have a great significance for the important gender implication by comparing.

In line with these research results, I would like to highlight the gender politics in making social care policy in South Korea, the UK, and Sweden, and then to find out the reasons for different care regimes. These three countries have been classified with corporative, liberal and social democratic welfare states respectively, according to Esping-Andersen's studies (1990, 1999). What is more, we could establish welfare states follow 'path-dependency' generally through his discussion on the welfare regime. However, the types of socialization of caring during the restructuring process of welfare states have been shown in different ways between countries recently (Rianne Mahon, 2002).

Therefore, my central research question is why there are different responses in making social care regime, based upon the politics of gender, in South Korea, the U.K and Sweden. To investigate this question, the following specific research questions will be examined:

1. Why are there different responses in making social care policy in South Korea, U.K and Sweden?
- What is the difference in being socialization of caring between three countries after restructuring of welfare states?
- What are the reasons to make those differences in making social care policy?
2. Second, how different is the politics of gender in these countries in making social care policy?
- How have feminists' coalitions organized for supporting care policy in order to systematize the gender equality?
- How has the gender equality by the gender politics been extended in these countries?
Methodology and Approach

To answer these research questions, both qualitative and quantitative methods will be used.
Firstly, this research will include a literature review and case studies of three countries regarding the factors that affect the different social care policy decision based on the politics of gender. Also, the research will be built on documents including academic studies, statistics, laws, bills, white papers, green papers, newspapers, journals and information obtained from the Internet.

Secondly, secondary data will be collected from various sources both internationally and locally (e.g. publications & statistic databases from South Korea, the UK, and Sweden), while primary data will be collected by field research.


Full paper: sungheelee_2010_Comparing Social Care Policy in South Korea, the UK and Sweden.pdf

Literature on welfare expenditure in Western nations has a consolidated tradition in academic studies. Social expenditure has been analyzed both as dependent variable and as independent variable in terms of its determinants and its effects (Castles 2008); its importance as an indicator for determining welfare state typologies has been emphasized by many researchers (Arts and Gelissen 2006); finally, the wave of reforms scaling back national welfare commitments in Europe during the '90s and globalization threats have propelled a vast literature on welfare retrenchment (Korpi and Palme 2003, Castles 2007). While western scholars worry about methodological problems such as the use of different indicators and contrasting empirical results (Olaskoaga-Larrauri 2009, Kuehner 2007), related comparative research in East Asia is still lagging behind, especially due to the lack of comprehensive datasets.
This paper aims to compensate for this void by bridging the studies on comparative social expenditure with the literature on welfare regimes - specifically on the possibility of an East Asian welfare regime (Kwon 1997) - by providing empirical evidence.
Two questions are being addressed here: first, is it appropriate to speak about welfare retrenchment in East Asia? Secondly, what are the determinants of welfare expenditure in East Asia, and how well do Western theories fit for explaining it? The first issue will be addressed by comparing social expenditure trends disaggregated by function in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, to their western counterparts, relative to the welfare retrenchment literature. Theories on the determinants of welfare commitments will be checked for these countries via multiple regression, according to the welfare regime approach. Concluding remarks will speculate on what has been done and what needs to be done for both theory and data development on this important topic

Full paper: I Jin Hong_2010.pdf

Despite potential harmful effect of discrimination on health, empirical data with directly measure discrimination are scarce. This study aims to examine associations of perceived discrimination in one's lifetime with physical, mental, and self rated ill-health among South Korean elderly. Data were from gender-, age-, and area-stratified sample of 994 elderly aged 60-89, surveyed with face to face interviews across the country. Discrimination was measured with a brief self-report instrument, "Experience of Discrimination (EOD)", developed and validated by Krieger. We further considered various types of discrimination regarding age, education, region, and birth-order as well as gender discrimination. Health outcomes included depression, self-reported poor health, and physician-diagnosed chronic diseases. To assess the independent effect of discrimination on health, prevalence ratios and associated 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by multivariate log binomial regression, controlling for age, life-course socioeconomic positions(high vs. low by the MacArthur scale measure for early childhood, adult, and old ages) and health behaviors(cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, physical exercise). A total of 23.4% reported experiences in any types of discrimination. While 23% of women reported experiencing gender discrimination, only 0.9% of men did so. When adjusted with age, men with any types of discrimination experiences were 1.88 times more likely to report depression (95% CI 1.08-3.32) and 1.61 times to report self-reported poor health (95% CI 1.06-2.44). Discrimination effect on mental health seemed to be even larger among women. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathways using various outcomes for the enhancement of the Korean elderly.


Authors(*presenter): Heeran Chun*, Minah Kang
Affiliation: Department of Public Administration, College of Social Sciences, Ewha Womans University