Abstracts & Papers in Stream 2

The Influx of massive immigrant brides whose initial purpose to immigrate was to marry Korean men has increased unprecedentedly over the past few years in South Korea. As a result, the Korean government has designed and implemented policies in order to aid these immigrant brides. However, as the policy is mainly aimed toward their cultural adjustment (Seol et al, 2005), little is known and done about the economic integration of immigrant brides in Korea. This is problematic since it is advisable to consider these women to become part of economically active population. In fact, economic integration, namely their labor market participation has been considered as an essential element which enables immigrants and their families to fully integrate into host society (Martin, 1999). Thus, this paper proposes to draw lessons from experiences in the Western countries and combine them with Korea's own situation. Specifically, utilizing data drawn from "Survey on International marriage family in Gyeonggi-do for 2007(Chun et al., 2007) this paper identifies amongst the demographic and human capital factors of 810 samples of immigrant brides which could affect their labor market participation.
Results of logistic analysis prove that amongst demographic factors, age of immigrant bride, and children younger than 6-year-old had positive effect on labor market participation. However, when controlling demographic characters, human capital variables were found not to have any significant impacts on employment.
There are more shades than black and white and there are other ways to deal with redistribution policies. Hence, the proper way should be aimed on increasing the socio-economic capital of these immigrant groups, enabling them to become economically active population. This analysis will shed light on the process of economic integration of immigrant brides, which will have a significant contribution to the existing literature.

 

Full paper: KyungEun Yang_2010_Study on Factors Affecting Immigrant Wives' Employment Status in South Korea.pdf

    The unemployment rate in Taiwan has increased continuingly from less than 2 percent in 1995 to 5.2 percent by 2002. Following a series of socio-economic measures, the unemployment rate dropped below 4 percent until June 2008. Due to the global financial crisis of the late 2008, the unemployment rate in Taiwan soared to 5% within six months and reached 6.07% in July 2009. In other words, Taiwan no longer enjoyed the status of 'high economic growth rate and low unemployment rate'. Unemployment has become a policy issue and measures to tackle the problem has been frequently proposed and implemented. This paper therefore intends to present major employment promotion measures taken in Taiwan between 2000 and 2008 under the former ruling party of Democratic Progress Party (DPP). Besides, this paper will explore the effect of the employment promotion measures with an illustration of the evaluation of the Multiple Employment Development Program (2004-2007). Finally, policy lessons will be drawn from the implementation experiences for future employment promotion measures as well as for those countries facing similar challenges. 
    The rising unemployment problem in Taiwan since 1996 has been characterized by economists as a form of structural unemployment. The government has taken several employment promotion measures to deal with the problem. These measures can roughly be grouped into three types: job creation, job training, and employment services. The Multiple Employment Development Program (MEDP) is a kind of job creation program with more community-oriented, targeting primary both unemployed and disadvantaged workers. The goal of this program is to subsidize NGO's for hiring unemployed workers to assist in the deprived neighborhoods, especially among manufacture-declined regions and agricultural counties. By comparing participants' labor participation outcomes before and after joining the MEDP, it is found that the re-employment rate of the participants reached 50% and the average monthly wage level slightly increased NT$ 88.15 (US$ 2.75). However, more than 80% of the participants left their first jobs after the MEDP within six months, and hence its effect of stable employment did not seem to be significant. In summary, the MEDP has reached part of its policy goals by absorbing a considerable number of participants in the previous workfare program and shifting them to work for community-based Non-Government Organizations. However, the effectiveness of this program will inevitably be questioned when the majority of the MEDP participants found their employability did not increase to a great extent after attending the program. A careful follow-up study to the job content that NGOs designed will be invaluable for exploring the reasons for the minor enhancement the participants' employability.

Chao-Yin Lin**
Associate Professor
Department of Social Work
National Taipei University
Taipei, TAIWAN
E-mail: cylin@mail.ntpu.edu.tw

 

 

Yun-Hsiang Hsu
PhD student
Glenn School of Public Affairs,
The Ohio State University
E-mail: hsu.313@osu.edu

Youth unemployment has been a social issue among industrialized nations for the past three to four decades.  Active labor market policies (ALMPs) aiming for a smooth integration of youth into the labor market have been the main policy response.  Such ALMPs tend to focus on bridging the gap between education and employment by providing job training opportunities and job search assistance.  Existing comparative research on youth unemployment concentrates on comparing different programs among OECD countries.  Yet, in order to fully understand the consequences of youth unemployment and ALMPs, it is necessary to analyze ideational factors underlying in policies.  This paper focuses on the role of ideas and values in policy making process.  Through a case study of the Japanese youth employment program, the paper will present how ideas held by ruling parties are reflected in the policies they produce.  Ideas and values affect actor perception of social issues and contribute in framing the issue at the scene of political debate.  From the early 2000s, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) dominated coalition government led by Prime Minister Junicihiro Koizumi, presented a series of labor market reform plans including those targeting youth.  Although many of the programs towards youth introduced in the plan were similar to those adopted in Western European nations, a close discourse analysis demonstrates that conservative ideas of the LDP are strongly embedded.  This was made possible due to the establishment of a consultative organ aiming to enhance the influence of politicians in policy making process.  The analysis provides an empirical study of how ideas and values become embedded into policies.

 

Name: Eriko Hamada
Institution: Sophia University, Tokyo, Japan
E-mail address: eriko-h@mtc.biglobe.ne.jp

Full paper: Eriko Hamada_2010_Embedding Ideas into Policy.pdf