Abstracts & Papers in Stream 3

The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the difference, if any, between  female-headed poor households and male-headed poor households in terms of factors affecting the likelihood of being out of poverty. The authors, after reviewing previous studies, focused in particular on whether the effect of care-giving burden and labor market participation on the likelihood differ between the two types of poor households.
For this purpose, the authors analyzed the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study Data. Two different definitions were used to determine if a household is being out of poverty: 1) if a poor household's income reaches at or above 120% of the national poverty line, then the households is regarded as being out of poverty, and 2) if a household's income becomes 120% of the national poverty line or more, and the household maintains its income at or above that level for two years.
The results of life-table and Cox regression analyses showed that female- and male-headed poor households did not differ in factors affecting the likelihood of escaping from poverty when the dependent variable for the analyses was defined by using the first definition. When the second definition was used, however, it was found that care-giving burden had statistically significant and adverse impact only on female-headed households deterring them from being out of poverty and that labor market participation of the household's head helped only male-headed poor households exit from poverty. Based on these findings, some suggestions were made for further improvement of the nation's anti-poverty policies.

Full paper: YooTaeKyun EASP Paper.pdf

This paper argues that there has been a significant increase in the number of working poor since 1980s. The "working poor" phenomenon in China did not used to be a major issue, but has statistically increased each year. The plight of the working poor in urban areas including rural migrant workers, unemployed workers (laid-off workers), low-income university graduates, and other low-income workers have received growing attention, as the portion of the working poor has increased steadily since 1980s. It was found that not only employment stability of the working poor itself but also the quality of life were greatly affected by financial crisis. Therefore, in order to alleviate problems that the working poor face, the government should adopt active social policy with more assistance in overcoming barriers to work and social participation for the working poor in urban areas including job-oriented, HRD(human resource development)-oriented and economy-promotion-oriented policy.

 

Yao, Jian-Ping, Associate professor

North China Electric Power University, School of Humanities and Social Sciences

Email: yaojianping99@sohu.com
 

Kim, Byung-Cheol, Assistant professor

Renmin University of China, School of Labor and Human Resource,
Email: bemastered@yahoo.com