Abstracts & Papers in Session 2

The purpose of this paper is to compare public pension systems of Korea, China, and Japan in light of a principle of social solidarity. Despite the fact that Korea, Japan, and China have adopted pension systems rather recently compared to western countries, three nations have experienced drastic developments and modifications in their systems in short period of time. The Japanese and Korean pension systems achieved a universal pension coverage in the early 1960s and late 1990s respectively. China has adopted a new pension scheme to achieve a goal of universalism since the 1990s. At this point, we can try the comparisons of the pension schemes of these countries because all the basic structures of the schemes are in place.  Considering the importance of pension system in welfare provision system, the present research can ultimately serve as an important rationale in discussing the existence of a unifying principle of East Asian social welfare model. Pension systems can be examined from different frameworks. For example, the OECD report, Pension at a Glance, uses both multi-pillar framework and benefit type in classifying Asian pension systems. First, from a multi-pillar framework, pension system can be divided into the first-pillar that has redistributive factors and the second-pillar that has the insurance component. Second, they also classify the system based on how the benefits are determined, such as DB and DC. In this paper, we would like to focus on the social solidarity perspective in comparing the basic structure of Korean, Japanese and Chinese pension systems. Pension system is a collective endeavor that diversifies old-age income risks through social solidarity. Therefore, analysing the principles of social solidarity underlying each nation's pension system is of vital importance in understanding the characteristics of each nation's pension system. Furthermore, it can also provide us with an insight to see if these nations show similar patterns and would be categorized as having a similar pension model. That is, it gives us the key criteria of seeing whether there is a single pension system design in East Asia. This study has cast considerable doubt on the possible single East Asian welfare model from solidarity principles in the pensions systems.

The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the difference, if any, between  female-headed poor households and male-headed poor households in terms of factors affecting the likelihood of being out of poverty. The authors, after reviewing previous studies, focused in particular on whether the effect of care-giving burden and labor market participation on the likelihood differ between the two types of poor households.
For this purpose, the authors analyzed the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study Data. Two different definitions were used to determine if a household is being out of poverty: 1) if a poor household's income reaches at or above 120% of the national poverty line, then the households is regarded as being out of poverty, and 2) if a household's income becomes 120% of the national poverty line or more, and the household maintains its income at or above that level for two years.
The results of life-table and Cox regression analyses showed that female- and male-headed poor households did not differ in factors affecting the likelihood of escaping from poverty when the dependent variable for the analyses was defined by using the first definition. When the second definition was used, however, it was found that care-giving burden had statistically significant and adverse impact only on female-headed households deterring them from being out of poverty and that labor market participation of the household's head helped only male-headed poor households exit from poverty. Based on these findings, some suggestions were made for further improvement of the nation's anti-poverty policies.

Full paper: YooTaeKyun EASP Paper.pdf

This article seeks to analyze the restructuring of the welfare system for old age income security in Taiwan since the 1990s and to identify factors explaining th is development. During the last two decades, the old age income security system in Taiwan experienced a permanent construction and restructuring. Substantial changes have taken place seen in three institutional areas, following different developmental pathways: (1) initiation and expansion of a quasi-"basic pension system" based on various status-differentiated, tax financed old age allowance schemes targeted on people over 65 without any support of social benefits ; (2) reform and retrenchment of the existing occupation-based social security system, including occupational social insurance schemes (since 1950s), public pension schemes for civil servants (since 1960s), and the mandatory occupational pension for employers (since 1984); (3) establishment of a national pension insurance system for the working-aged excluded from the occupation -based social security system mentioned above . I argue that this multi-dimensional restructuring is influenced by the interactions of three factors, namely: (1) the welfare system developed before the political transformation and its legacies; (2) the role and function of democratic elections and political parties in social interest representation; (3) the semi-presidential system for policy-making. During the democratic transformation and consolidation, different patterns of interaction between these three factors generate distinct pension politics that have effects on different institutional areas and i nfluence the dynamics of next round pension development. In general, it can be said that this restructuring in democratic Taiwan consolidates a pension system with predominantly two pillars that strengthens the public commitments in the old age income security, but does not emphasize the responsibility of individual, family or market which usually had been identified as the main source of social welfare in East Asia.

This contrasts not only sharply with the focus on privatization encouraged by influential international agencies, but also with the conventional productivist/developmental welfare state
perspective in explaining the East Asian welfare state development.

Dr. Chen, Ming-fang
Assistant Professor, Department of Social Welfare
National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan.

For people with psychiatric disabilities, employment could be a kind of purpose, measure, goal in life, in addition, it could be sometimes therapy. Although there have been many efforts to realize their employment by themselves and practitioners for long time, it still has not been easy to achieve it. On the other hand, for the achievement of their employment, supports by Supported Employment model (SE-model) is considered the one of effective measures in employment support for people with psychiatric disabilities. Because, they have many significant difficulties to get and keep employment, and therefore they need supports such as not only skill training for work but also supports in work pace for adjustment or coordinate of relations with employer or colleague. Of course, also in Japan, there are some policies and systems on which SE-model is conducted. But persons who are able to get effective practice of SE-model are not so many. Then, I'll show the actual condition of SE-model practice and policies related it in Japan, and discuss the problems of them. And I'll try to make some suggestion to spread and to realize easier achievement of employment of persons with mental disabilities.



Full paper: Ritsu Yamamura_2010_The Policies and its Challenge to Conduct SE-model.pdf

Since 2005, Chinese cities have begun to establish community centres for young people with intellectual disabilities as a step to provide training and activities. Following the lead of Shanghai and Beijing, the national government recommended replicating the Shanghai Sunshine Home model in cities throughout China in 2008. But the effectiveness of this model has not been systematically researched. This study uses mixed methods to ask whether the Sunshine model contributes to social inclusion for young people with intellectual disability. It finds that the model has successfully achieved social contact, quality of life, skills training and even transition to employment for people who attend the centres. The implementation experience has generated lessons for future policy development, particularly to address the limitations of the model, such as alternative support for people with higher support needs.


Karen R. Fisher, Associate Professor, Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Karen.fisher@unsw.edu.au

Zeng Fanlin, Associate Professor, School of Preschool and Special Education, East China Normal University, flzeng69@126.com

Full paper: Karen_Fisher_2010_Shanghai Sunshine homes.pdf

Background  Disabled persons' access to assistive technology heavily depends on public support. However, gays tend to exist between the needs of the disabled person and the needs defined by administrative apparatus. Using the experiences of buying wheelchairs, this research is aimed to identify such gap from the standpoint of persons with severe physical disability and to explore underlying assumptions behind the administrative processes. 

Method  Institutional ethnography, developed by Dorothy Smith, is adopted as research design. The experience of a woman with physical disability who tries to apply to buy new wheelchairs through the official process is collected through in-depth interviews. Her experience is contextualized in the administrative process, which data is collected through interviewing related players, including medical professionals, experienced users and agents for assistive technology, in order to map out the social relations behind this policy.

Result  Research findings illustrate professionalism as the ideology reproducing through this whole process which systematically excludes the views of these disabled persons.  In this system, people with disability are considered by the professional authority as incapable of determining their own needs and therefore unworthy opportunities for self-determination.  On the other hand, people with disability tend to network among themselves to develop and disseminate counter n knowledge regarding the subsidy policy to satisfy their unmet needs. 
Conclusion  The subjectivity of people with disability grow up from this gap between policy and practices among their own network with assistance from agents and professionals.  The capacity for producing knowledge to resist administrative regime that deny the needs of people with disability needs to be recognized in the future for a better welfare policy for disabled persons.

Song-Jin Yang
Institute of Health and Welfare Policy, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.


Full paper: Song-Jin Yang_2010_Mother tongue. A narrative analysis of polio and mothering.pdf

In January 2010, the parliament in Taiwan passed the bills regarding the reconfiguration of the central government's administrative structure. Under the new organisational structure, the current Department of Health and the Department of Social Affairs will merge into a new department called Department of Health and welfare. Just as English policy and service experience has shown the advantages of integration of health and social services for people with mental health needs, hopefully the reconfiguration of the government's administrations will benefit mental health service users in Taiwan too. Nonetheless, at the moment how the new administration will provide integrative services for service users and their family carers is unknown.

This paper focuses on mental health policy reform in Taiwan. Using qualitative semi-structured interview and documentary research method, relevant qualitative data regarding the history of mental health policy and various stakeholders' viewpoints concerning current policy debate were collected. In addition to the critical review of policy development and the presentation of stakeholder analysis, this paper also tackles two inter-related issues concerning future policy reform: policy transfer and cultural appropriateness of mental health care. Briefly speaking, four research questions will be presented and answered in this paper. Firstly, what are the factors influencing the development of mental health policy in Taiwan? Secondly, what are the policy stakeholders' viewpoints and influences regarding the development of mental health policy in Taiwan? Thirdly, in terms of policy transfer, what can Taiwan learn from the history of service development and policy reform in England? Fourthly, how can Taiwan develop its own culturally appropriate mental health services? Throughout the discussion of mental health policy reform in Taiwan, it is hoped that there will be policy implications for other countries in East Asia.

Jin-Yong Wang
Assistant Professor (jyw536@mail.tcu.edu.tw)
Department of Social Work, Tzu-Chi University, Taiwan

Full paper: JinYongWangg_2010_Multiple perspectives mental health policy reform in Taiwan.pdf

  The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of the welfare commissioner system on the infant mortality rate (IMR). Infant death, as well as income distribution and differential, is the important social welfare indicator in a country. A steady decline in the IMR in 1920-30s Japan is one of the largest issues concerning the studies of Japanese population and economic history. This decline contributed to accumulate human resources and to construct the "base" of economic development. Shigeru Ito (1998) argues that the decline was caused by an increase in the number of midwives and infant care institutions, while Osamu Saito (2008) analyses the effect of the mother and child care schemes by non-government organizations after 1930s, showing that aiiku villages operated by Aiiku-kai improved the IMR in rural areas. However, both studies explain one aspect of this issue, because the former analysis is limited to a trend before 1930s and the aiiku village project, mentioned in the latter study, was a very small scale project.
  This study focuses on country wide system of area commissioners, "Homen iin", and shows that the mother and child care activities for low-income households by the Homen iin as social workers caused a decline in the IMR by preventing death of newborns in prewar Japan. Interrelationship between the welfare state and infant mortality has been discussed in recent journals. "Homen iin" system is the former system of "Minsei iin", which is a communal welfare commissioner system as public-private partnership in modern era. The results of this study show the direction of the modern community welfare and social policy.


Graduate School of Economics, University of Tokyo(Doctoral student)
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Research Fellow
Kota Ogasawara


Full paper: Ogasawara K_Infant mortality_2010EASP_DP.pdf

The emergence of evidence based health care has to be one of the tremendous movements of the 1990s. In over ten years the movement has had a significant impact on health care and health policy. In developed countries, including UK, Canada, USA and Australia, there are centres for evidence based medicine, evidence based dentistry, evidence based ENT, evidence based child services and mental health services. This organizational change has been accompanied by series of practice manuals, professional journals, and newsletters, clinical toolkits and software packages, online databases and email discussion groups. The movement in developed countries has become a global expansion without national boundaries.

Although the emergence of evidence based health care in developed countries has been dramatic, the adoption of evidence based approach in other developing countries is not in good progress. Over the last ten years evidence based health care have been developed in most health fields, including evidence based medicine, dentistry, nursing, public health, physiotherapy, mental health and alternative medicine. Recently, evidence based approach originating in health care is being advocated and adopted in more distant fields of professional activity, including social work, probation, education, and public policy. The adoption of evidence based approach in developing countries provides more efficient and effective resources of decision making not just for health care but for social and public fields. Evidence based health care is the practice of making decision through the judicious identification, evaluation and application of the most relevant information within professional knowledge databases for scholars and policy decision makers in East Asian Countries.


Hyung-Gyoo (Paul) Kim
Department of Social Welfare
Graduate School of Business Administration and Policy
Anyang University
Email: paul@kinogroup.net

This paper argues that there has been a significant increase in the number of working poor since 1980s. The "working poor" phenomenon in China did not used to be a major issue, but has statistically increased each year. The plight of the working poor in urban areas including rural migrant workers, unemployed workers (laid-off workers), low-income university graduates, and other low-income workers have received growing attention, as the portion of the working poor has increased steadily since 1980s. It was found that not only employment stability of the working poor itself but also the quality of life were greatly affected by financial crisis. Therefore, in order to alleviate problems that the working poor face, the government should adopt active social policy with more assistance in overcoming barriers to work and social participation for the working poor in urban areas including job-oriented, HRD(human resource development)-oriented and economy-promotion-oriented policy.


Yao, Jian-Ping, Associate professor

North China Electric Power University, School of Humanities and Social Sciences

Email: yaojianping99@sohu.com

Kim, Byung-Cheol, Assistant professor

Renmin University of China, School of Labor and Human Resource,
Email: bemastered@yahoo.com