Abstracts & Papers in Stream 1

overall thesis of the study to which this paper contributes is that globalization currently shows itself as increased regional integration. That is the case for Europe, North Central and South America, and, probably also, for East Asia. Additionally, it is hypothesized that increased economic (trade) integration spill over into enhanced social rights and entitlements. That has been the case for Europe and Latin America, and the paper aims at testing this thesis against the East Asian case. Since the end of the cold war and particularly since the former financial crisis of the late 1990s East Asian nations have experienced an increase in regional integration and a simultaneous increase in social citizenship rights. The paper tries to demonstrate if, and possibly how, these processes are inter connected.

Peter Abrahamson
Seoul National University
Department of Social Welfare

pa@soc.ku.dk

 

Abrahamson_SogangUniversity_2010_EAST ASIAN INTEGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL RIGHTS.pdf

Back to 'Three worlds of welfare capitalism': Feminisation of poverty in welfare-state regimesBack to 'Three worlds of welfare capitalism': Feminisation of poverty in welfare-state regimes

It is widely acknowledged that women are more likely to be poor than men. Although the feminisation of poverty has become a common feature in most of advanced welfare states, it is equally true that there has been a significant variation in the feminisation of poverty from one country to another. A few comparative studies have reported not only commonalities but also differences among western countries, but few have attempted to explain why such cross-national differences have appeared. This study aims to deal with the question, 'why', connecting empirical findings based on the LIS dataset to welfare regime research which has been playing a crucial role in comparative social policy academia for the last two decades. Following critical reviews of feminists' critiques of welfare regime approaches, our empirical works will identify the level of the feminisation of poverty, the gender gap of poverty, and the role of public income transfer in 12 welfare states (Liberal - Australia, Canada, UK, US; Conservative - Austria, France, Germany, Italy; Nordic - Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden). Ultimately, we will argue that welfare regime theory is able to explain the different level of the feminisation of poverty. In the final part of the article, we will discuss implications of welfare regime theory in the feminist research.

 

Full paper: Kimjinwook_Choiyoungjun_2010_Feminisation of poverty in 12 welfare states.pdf

 

Jin Wook Kim, Ph.D
Assistant Professor
Sogang University, South Korea

 

Young Jun Choi, Ph.D
Assistant Professor
Korea University

 

This study examined the reason why South Korea and Japan having similar policy objectives of attaining financial stability had achieved current pension reform in different ways under connection with political institutions. Political configurations including formal and informal institution shape and restrict institutional context of pension reform. Through cross-national comparative case study this research used veto point for examining the institutional influence of political system on pension reform. 
According to the findings drawn through analyzing the veto point on pension reform and institutional context of two nations that forms veto points, the pension reform of Japan can be characterized as absence of politics without veto point while Korea experienced both the advent of veto point and political conflict. Korea`s pension reform with the presence of veto point was gradual and consent-oriented, Japan devoid of veto point displaying swift reform without politics like the previous reforms.
Japanese pension reform was depoliticized reform barren of veto point based on the political system fostering Nemawashi(根回し; prior conference) and absence of parties representing for interest group. Meanwhile Korea, with the opposition party traditionally forming veto point in divided government and interest group having the route to express their standpoint, proceeded with the gradual pension reform upon a far-reaching agreement. Considering all discussed, the attributes of political institutions and arrangements in two countries are different, so they made different political path and result of pension reform for similar policy end. Diverse policy response for common matter can be explained by the result of this study that institutional configurations provide different opportunities for veto point on pension reform which allows political decisions to be overturned at various places in the policy process.