Abstracts & Papers in Poster session

Comparative study of the distribution standard of basic income institutional and Silhak(scholars of last Choson)

Modern age is under capitalism and market economy, it focus contribution on distribution of wealth. It is distributed for need preferentially by social welfare but deficient. The gulf between rich and poor is getting worse, and the lower class and the labor lower class are getting increase. To solve like this problems it suggested to the nation that give basic income to all social member or all family. The thing is the national basic needs should supplied by the nation and give income to citizen to have a balanced distribution income. This distribution system ideology is similar which idea proposed by scholars of Silhak. The conception of Silhak was a trend of idea of social reform, it proposed modernistic course and politics. The idea of Silhak was emphasize the need by give all people some land equally for equitable income, by government-owned principles of the land, by upper-lower limit system of land-owning to narrow the gap between the wealthy and the poor.
 Comparison between basic income institutional and Silhak of Choson will be propose realistic possibility and deduction of progress of basic income institutional. So this study is compare contribution with need in distribution of wealth standard by two idea's social and economic situation. According to this study, the purpose is to prepare for historical and philosophical base in introduce basic income. 
As a result, Basic income and idea of Silhak is similar because distribution of wealth is not functioning at that time. These society and economic situation that need, contribution, ability or effort were not concern in distribution of wealth and the need were not satisfy national desire. For this reason to solve the imbalance situation, we need political discuss like introduce basic income.

Occupational Low-back Pain in Care Workers

Japan is ageing more rapidly than other East Asian countries. Two million care workers are employed for elderly following the introduction of long-term care insurance system in 2000. Historically caring for the elderly was carried out by family members, mainly women, but changing family structures and greater levels of female employment means that there is an urgent need for qualified care workers. The professional care worker is therefore playing an increasingly important role in Japanese society.

In recent years there has been an increase in resignations amongst care workers. There are three reasons for this: (1) society does not value care work highly; (2) terms of employment are poor; and (3) the psychological and physical burdens created by the workplace environment are not improving. As a consequence it remains difficult to recruit talented workers and serious manpower shortages occur. Under these circumstances, policy initiatives and educational programmes need to be implemented and improving the treatment of care workers and their workplace environment remain a high priority.

In 2008 and 2009, surveys and interviews were conducted in nursing homes amongst care workers and this study explores the difficulties faced by those workers who experienced physical problems due to their work. Findings (450 valid responses) indicate that occupational lower-back pain has become an increasing problem and a common cause of sick leave. Compared with USA and UK, self and health regulation for care workers is insufficient to prevent problems from occupational back pain. This paper reflects on current health policy for care workers and explores available educational programmes.

We hope that our experiences will provide good lessons for other East Asian countries, such as South Korea, where a long-term insurance care system for the elderly began in 2008. This study is still running and we hope to share our experiences and findings with others working in this field.

Name; Agenosono Yoshiko, An Seung-Hee, Hori Takaki, Kamozawa Saori
Email address; s.kamozawa@googlemail.com (Saori Kamozawa)
Institution; Nihon University; College of Humanities and Sciences, Dep. of Sociology

The effect of welfare state institutions on welfare attitude

This study aims to evaluate whether three factors distinguishing the welfare regimes (degree of job opportunities, degree of generousity, and degree of selectivism) affect the welfare attitude toward working people and non-working people. Especially, these two groups are selected because the change in policies for them is consistent with developing or restructuring of the welfare states. The result of multilevel analysis shows that the effect of welfare state institution on the welfare attitude is only significant on the policies of working people, not of non-working people
A descriptive and explanatory framework of studying the East Asian welfare models has dominated the literature in English since 'positive Orientalism was re-discovered and raised by western scholars. So far, this framework has already been attempted to generalize China's welfare system. By combining perspectives of culture and political economy, this framework claims that as the socialist state always prioritizes economic growth over welfare issues in the communist period and the market period, it is important to adopt a welfare-pluralist approach to analyze institutional arrangements. Moreover, the socialist state appears to preserve and utilize Confucian virtues and practices to justify its marginalized social policy. However, after introducing a theory of social quality which includes four integral components of socio-economic security, inclusion, cohesion and empowerment, this paper utilizes this theoretical framework to assess well-being in the period of danwei or work units. Ultimately, it argues that rather than Confucianism, it is more significant to discuss the coercive power of the state in welfare distribution as a path-dependent factor: that is, how state power has influenced recipients' well-being and what its ongoing impact is.
To face the population aging in Taiwan, there is not only more active treatments for elder people by medical technology improvement, aggressive continuation of rehabilitation therapy service after treatment are demanded. Through the provision of rehabilitation therapy service, more and more elderly people may not only achieve disease recovery and functional improvement, decrease the possibility of functional disability, but also increase the quality of life. However, what is the whole rehabilitation service delivery model and what is the predicament of this model in long term care system in Taiwan? This is the subject of concern in this study.
The method of this study was literature review to analysis and explore. Through the operation method of system review, collecting and organizing the literature by the key words: rehabilitation, long term care, service delivery, elderly, and so on, in order to realize that the status of rehabilitation service delivery model and ideal model may development in the future.
The result shows that the rehabilitation services that people received are still based on service model provided by medical institutions in majority, and still limited in the acute health care system. The long term care system in Taiwan has to promote the rehabilitation service delivery model. It must be considered and encouraged the development of community and home rehabilitation service delivery model effectively. In that way, the complete old life care service delivery system could be build completely, and provide elderly people various service programs and contents to choose to cater the diverse needs of elderly people in real life.
Gijang Welfare Network pilot project is conducted by Busan National University and Gijang County office from August in 2009 to July in 2010. They aim to promote the quality of elder's living especially who live in Gijang in Busan by stimulating the interaction and network between the community institutions in terms of welfare center, elderly residential factility and self-support center so on. In addition, they try to discover unknown senior clients who have a multiple problem by neglecting in blind spot zone. For continuing finacial support of local public body, and progress of network system, the correct prediction of outcomes is necessary.
The best known evaltuating method is SROI(Social Return On Investment) Evaluation. SROI is a social accounting way, that value the net economic Free Cash Flow and Social Results, then divide into Investment. In a word, SROI value and forecast economic and social outcomes simultaneously.
Our purpose of this paper is to predict the outcomes of Gijang welfare network pilot project, and produce the prediction of outcomes. This paper argues that Gijang welfare network pilot project contributes to senior clients by stimulating the cooperation and network in Gijang community

Yuri GOTO
Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University

Some countries have enacted anti-discrimination legislation to prevent discrimination based on race, gender, age, etc. In 1990 the first comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation in disability area, named 'Americans with Disabilities Act,' enacted in the United States. In Asia the Philippines (enacted in 1992) and Hong Kong (enacted in 1995) have the 'most comprehensive disability discrimination laws' (Degener 2005:97). Recently, Korea enacted 'Anti-discrimination against and Remedies for Persons with Disability Act' in 2007.
  The laws are expected to redress discrimination which had already happened. In addition, more importantly, there is another role; to reduce public discriminatory attitude against disabled people (Sugino 2007:9). It is certainly sure that the various public sectors encourage people not to discriminate against disabled people. However, it is not enough. A private sector such as the media also influence public attitude. Here, as one of important factors for changing public attitude, the disability rights movements will be focused.  While enacting law is top-down approach, disability rights movements use bottom-up approach listening to local people. Therefore, it can be said that law and disability rights movements are complementary. 
  This presentation will target on disability rights movement organizations of Hong Kong and Korea. What kinds of activities have they done after enacting anti-discrimination legislation? First of all, this question is answered based on the survey. Then these activities are comparatively analyzed. The impact of other pioneer countries, the United State and Australia, is also briefly stated. I would like to locate this presentation as a first step towards further researches which finds out the role of disability rights movement organizations as an 'intermediator'  in Asia.

Analysis of Supporting Group in Psychiatric Social Work

The research explores the differences in the types of groups,attendance of the patients,time slot, and the attendance of the social workers in a psychiatric hospitals of central part Taiwan of the year 2008. The research samples are based on the group records from 5 emergency wards (A to E), and there are 180 copies of records.

       According to data, the researcher has divided the analysis of supporting groups in psychiatric social work into 5 types, including (1). Stress release group, (2). Interpersonal interaction group, (3). Family interaction group, (4). Self-growth group, and (5) others. The result of the research also reveals that the most percentage shows on the type 1 and 2 (both are 40% above). The percentage of those two types are different from the different types of the wards. The higher percentage is ward C(25%) leaded for type 1 and 2, and the lowest for ward E(8.3%). Others is between 20.6% ~ 23.9%. As for the time slot, it was arranged according to the service content of the social workers, and could be adjusted flexibly. The group leaders were favorable with two workers. Group types were focused on the type 2, 3 and 4 . That is, the social workers often hold the group activities with the type 2,3 and 4. The main reasons would be concerned about  the subjectiveness of the social workers, the sufficiency of the facility, the acceptance for the patient and the promotion of self-valuation.

      According to the findning of this research, the social workers could consider how to reduce the differences among the social workers in advance and provide the meaning of the activity based on the needs of patients in ward individully before running groups .

Since the late 1990s, internal changes and external challenges have destroyed the balance between labor demand and labor supply and led to the growth of unemployment in Taiwan. Thus, the unemployment rate increased 174% and the long-term unemployment rate increased almost 663% during the period from 1991 to 2008. Unemployment has occurred among not only unskilled workers or disadvantaged minorities, but also among some parts of the middle class or skilled workers with middle or above educational attainment. In summary, unemployment has become a serious social problem and challenge to Taiwan. In order to combat unemployment, Taiwan decided to develop active labor market policies in the late 1990s. The setting of activation policies in Taiwan emphasizes training and public employment programs, and the target groups are middle-aged unemployed populations. This study focuses on the process of developing and formulating activation policies and seeks to understand why and how activation policies emerged in Taiwan. The proposed methods here consist of: (1) documentary analysis employing written documents involving issues related to unemployment, and (2) semi-structured interviews focusing on participants in policy communities.

Name: Yi-Lang Chao

Institution: School of policy studies, University of Bristol, UK

Email address: Yilang.Chao@bristol.ac.uk
                          orel@mail2000.com.tw

Background 

Disabled persons' access to assistive technology heavily depends on public support. However, gays tend to exist between the needs of the disabled person and the needs defined by administrative apparatus. Using the experiences of buying wheelchairs, this research is aimed to identify such gap from the standpoint of persons with severe physical disability and to explore underlying assumptions behind the administrative processes. 

Method 

Institutional ethnography, developed by Dorothy Smith, is adopted as research design. The experience of a woman with physical disability who tries to apply to buy new wheelchairs through the official process is collected through in-depth interviews. Her experience is contextualized in the administrative process, which data is collected through interviewing related players, including medical professionals, experienced users and agents for assistive technology, in order to map out the social relations behind this policy.

Result 

Research findings illustrate professionalism as the ideology reproducing through this whole process which systematically excludes the views of these disabled persons.  In this system, people with disability are considered by the professional authority as incapable of determining their own needs and therefore unworthy opportunities for self-determination.  On the other hand, people with disability tend to network among themselves to develop and disseminate counter n knowledge regarding the subsidy policy to satisfy their unmet needs. 

Conclusion 

The subjectivity of people with disability grow up from this gap between policy and practices among their own network with assistance from agents and professionals.  The capacity for producing knowledge to resist administrative regime that deny the needs of people with disability needs to be recognized in the future for a better welfare policy for disabled persons.